**Abstract: The Photon Has Mass: The Simple Proof 23 May 2022**

**Photon PowerPoint Slides Including 45 PHOTON PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS**

Mass’Querade ON YOUTUBE: ******* Teaser******* ******** Full Movie*******

**©****Clifford G. Arnell : 1985-2022 ****All Rights Reserved**

**The Photon Has Mass and The logical proof in this paper provides an elegantly simple explanation of the exact reasoning. Dr. Max Planck’s experimental deductions about his ‘Quanta’, ‘Photons’, didn’t reveal whether the ‘Quanta’ were massive. BUT, did show that Infra-red Waves were composed of individual ‘quanta’ of Electro-Magnetic energy, now called Photons, each of which can possess Energy greater than their mass alone at light speed. Doctor Planck’s experimental thermodynamics showed that each ‘Quanta of Electro-Magnetic Energy’, each ‘Photon’, has a precise ‘quantum’ energy amount. It is theorized in “Mass’Querade, The Theory of Everything” that Each Energy-Bearing Photon is A Transverse Axially-Oscillating Torsion-Pendulum”, ****Gravitationally Propelled Like A Bubble Rising Out Of A Pool Of Water****”****.©**

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******* Teaser******* ******** Full Movie*******

**THE FIRST PROOF: “PHOTON Speed is limited to ‘THE ****ASYMPTOTIC**** SPEED OF LIGHT’ ****BECAUSE PHOTONS DO HAVE MASS****.”©** Repeat: **This is an all-important idea to understand. Photons are limited to the speed of light because they do have mass!©**

**When Dr Max Planck took his measurements, ALL of the Photon Energy was attributed to its Frequency. However, his Constant, ‘h’, should be seen to include the mass of the Photon at NEAR Light Speed AND the ‘Time-Flex’* Torsion Pendulum Oscillatory Energy of the Photon. ****The Mass of the Photon, regardless of frequency, makes little difference****. ****Heat Energy is ~5.0E+11 more energetic (massive) than the ‘near Light Speed’ energy of the compositional Etheric Flux lines of the Photon. We should never confuse ‘h’ with ‘F’. E=hF. ****The Frequency of Photons is NOT Quantized****. IT IS THE REACTION OF E-M RADIATION WITH ELECTRONS WHICH RESULT IN FREQUENCY SENSITIVE INTERACTIONS… NOT PLANCK’S CONSTANT.©**

**Planck’s Constant is: h = 6.62607015 × 10 ^{-34} m^{2} kg / s**

**Also, Dr. Planck’s formula: E=hF (in joule-seconds) ****Includes**** The Mass**** Of The Vertical Axis Pendulum**** Of The Photon Along ****With**** The ‘Time-Flex’ Energy Of Oscillation. *See Fig 2 below*. Simply, The Kinetic Energy (hF)Of The Photon is ****Oscillatory Energy**** AND ****Photonic Mass in Motion****.© Planck’s constant ‘h’ includes the Photon mass in the final number©**

**The ****Total Effective**** Mass Of A 1Hz Photon Moving At ‘The Asymptotic Speed Of Light’ can be found using the Dr. Einstein favorite of: m = E/ c² and substituting E=hF, where we get:**

**m = E(Energy of a 1Hz Photon)/c² = hF(Planck’s Constant)*(1Hz)/c² = 7.372E-51 Kg.©**

**The ****Total Effective**** Mass Of A 1Ghz Photon Moving At ‘The Asymptotic Speed Of Light’ is:**

**m = E(Energy of a 1GHz Photon)/c² = hF(Planck’s Constant)*(1GHz)/c² = 7.372E-43 Kg.©** **The mass of the Photon, 7.372E-51 is un-noticeable at higher frequencies.**

**(Subtracting the energy of the mass of the photon accelerated to near the speed of light is quite trivial compared to the oscillatory energy of even a 1.0GHZ Photon. Gamma Rays are in the Exa-Hertz range. This should be a great lab experiment or exercise in simultaneous equations to extract the mass of the Photon from the overall Energetic equivalent.)**

**In the past, there has been no argument that ‘Light’, ****By definition,**** moves at the ‘Speed of Light’ yet Dr. Einstein proposed that Atomic Mass**** Can only Be Propelled To NEAR**** The Speed of Light. It is herein proposed that The ‘Speed of Light’ and the upper-most speed of Massive objects have**** the same speed limit, ****determined by The Density Of The Local Ether.© Light travels at the ‘Speed of Light’. The Ether provides ‘The Asymptotic Speed of Light’ for all Etheric distortions of Light, E-M Radiation, and Gravity.© The Ether is amazingly flexible and can be distorted into Wormholes connecting two points in SPACE and requiring near-zero Time to ‘fly’ between them. This is NOT time travel. Photons Can Densify Time Into “Massless Black Holes” in Electrons or Galaxies OR Decompress Time To Form Wormholes With Great ‘Light Speed.©**

**FIG. 2: The Whirling Ether Composing The Rim Of The Photon Is Where ‘Timeflex Kinetic Energy’ Is Found When E&M Are Zero. (see Etheric Photon Below).**

James Clerk Maxwell, Professor of Experimental Physics, published by Clarendon, “A Treatise On Electricity and Magnetism”, still available for purchase, **In 1873** in which he revealed** that light was, in all likelihood, an Electro-Magnetic *** WAVE*.

*but this revelation was later misapplied to wrongfully illustrate the Photon as a wave. Photons are NOT waves but they*

__He was right about light traveling in waves__*similar, but not the same as how H₂O molecules compose waves of water. ‘Particles of light’ we call*

**are what compose Electro-Magnetic Waves****Photons look no more like a wave than H2O looks like a wave. But unlike H2O, NO TWO PHOTONS HAVE THE SAME FREQUENCY.©**Photons can literally share the same space at the same time which is why they can produce waves that are more like solitons.

**WHAT IS TIME-FLEX ENERGY?**

**Time-Flex energy is stored in distortions of the ether** and returned at the end of period of distortion. Why is it called Time-Flex? Dr. Einstein used the term Space-Time distortion to indicate how Space and Time can be distorted by a gravitational field such as that surrounding the space outside of the physical body of the sun. If Space is not thought to be distorted but only the ether within a given space, then it is only Time-Flex energy that is stored, not within the distortions of space, but of Time within a given space. Like a squished cube, the Ether pushes back to regain its perfect, non distorted shape of an un-squished cube.

**What are the three significant features that result from distorting the Ether?**

Let’s create some Photons. Two forces that work together to form a Photon; Electric and Magnetic forces. Both are reliant on the existence of an Ether. Let’s start with a half-wave antenna. When a voltage is applied to the base of the two arms that meet in the middle of a half-wave antenna, free electrons within the two elements of the antenna will flow, either as Electrons rush into or out of the opposite arms of the antenna to charge the free-space capacitance in the sphere surrounding the two arms. As that sinusoidal current is charging the capacitance, it flows linearly along the two arms. **As in the primary of any transformer, any current flowing in a wire will generate an associated closed-loop of magnetic flux around the wire.** THIS IS AN INCREDIBLY IMPORTANT CONCEPT IN THE COMPOSITION OF THE PHOTON.

**How Does The Photon Maintain Its Speed? **Professors Dr. Albert Einstein and Doctor Maxwell both concluded that the ‘Speed of Light’ was the * limit* that the speed of all

*objects could attain*

**massive**

**wi****for the Photon which was assumed to be massless and perpetually travelling at Light Speed.**

*thout offering a means of propulsion***This caused them to miss the required explanation for ‘The Asymptotic Speed Limit Of Light’.**

**We should be asking**, “If the Photon DOES HAVE MASS, wouldn’t it coast to a stop after a few thousand light years?” OR “Why does the Photon keeps going at full ‘Light Speed’… presumably forever?”

**There is an Answer! the Ether applies perpetual pressure to all Photons.©**

**T****he Photon Is PROPELLED to**** ‘The Asymptotic Speed Of Light’ due to a ‘Temporal Bubble’ In The Center Of Every Photon.©**** Simply stated: There is a Gravitational void within the center of the Photon propelling it to try to escape the Ether.**

**Dr. Einstein’s ‘curving Photon effect‘ can happen in ANY gravitational field including the massive centers of all sub-atomic particles. When a Photon approaches the Sun on its passage toward Earth, the inside edge of the Photon nearest the Sun is held back (slowed slightly) more by gravitational density than the outside edge causing the Photon to arc toward the Sun as it passes.© Yes this curving effect is as if the Photon was on a tether.©**

**PHOTONS HAVE MASS BECAUSE IT IS THE BEST EXPLANATION TO PROVIDE A KNOWN SPEED LIMIT FOR ALL PHOTONS AND IT IS THE SAME FOR THE SPEED OF ALL PHOTONIC ENTITIES TRAVELLING THROUGH**** THE MEDIA**** OF EMPTY SPACE. THE ETHER PROVIDES ‘THE ASYMPTOTIC SPEED OF LIGHT’ FOR PHOTONS ‘Mass’, and Gravity.*** ©* “

**Let there be light!”**

**WITHOUT THE ETHER, THERE WOULD BE NO PHOTONS, NO MASS OR GRAVITY.**

**Doctor Albert Einstein[1], On September 27**^{th}**, 1905 Famously Published a paper titled: “Does the Inertia of a Body Depend Upon Its Energy-Content?”[2]**https://www.fourmilab.ch/etexts/einstein/E_mc2/e_mc2.pdf** His mathematical paper demonstrated that “mass at rest” has “Energy-Content”: E=mc², which, ****when accelerated****, will gain kinetic energy that ****can act as**** an incremental increase in mass. Einstein’s equation (below), does not imply that the apparent increase in mass is actual ‘mass’. The additional ‘Mass’ is NOT ‘massive’ but is ****The Resistance By Compositional Photons**** That Cannot Exceed The ‘Asymptotic Speed of Light’ that explains WHY Mass cannot exceed the ‘Speed of Light’. We see below how Dr. Einstein multiplies the rest mass by c², (mc²), as shown below, and then by a trailing multiplier. ****This ****Equation Quantifies The Effect Of Acceleration Of ‘MASS’ toward ‘The Asymptotic Speed Of Light’ ****But Does Not Explain It happens due to the Photonic composition of mass****.©**

**Per Dr. Einstein: When any object’s velocity (momentum = mass*velocity) begins nearing ‘The ****Asymptotic Speed of Light’****, ‘ac’, the square root of (v²/ac²) in the equation above approached infinity resulting in an infinite increase in mass (m) which demonstrates the ****impossibility**** of massive objects OR Photons ever exceeding the speed of light even with infinite acceleration. Asymptotes, by definition, can never be reached. Limits are part of Calculus 101.**

“**Does the frequency of Oscillation of a Photon affect it’s mass?”**

**Let’s be very careful here. Only that part of the Photon that composes the Axis and the Perimeter of the Photon is ‘massive’. ****The Energy Possessed By The Frequency of Oscillation**** of the Torsion Pendulum is pure alternating Kinetic/Potential Energy manifesting as flexations of the Ether.©**

**Sadly, Dr. Einstein did express the thought that *perhaps* ‘mass’ might be composed of photons’. “Reality is merely an illusion, albeit a very persistent one”**

**He never got to see how ‘mass’ could be composed solely of Photons nor did he learn that****Photon Mass****would be the reason that limited the ‘Speed of Light’ OR THAT it is what****limits the speed of all mass because of the Photonic composition of Mass.****‘Dr. E’ never got to view “Mass’querade”… Hoping Dr. George Zweig will get to.**

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**The SECOND ‘Logical Proof’ Of WHY The Photon Has Mass: Stated as,**

*The Compositional Elements Of Mass Are Photons. Photons MUST BE MASSIVE because They Pass Their Characteristics including ‘massiveness’ To the Massive objects they compose.©* Bricks bring the characteristics of rock to the facing of wooden structures and support to the characteristics of brick buildings.

**This Idea Is Expounded In A Full Video****: ****Mass’querade: The Movie published by Mr, Arnell at youtube.com.**

**The Current and Classic depiction of a Photon ****only shows**** the temporal vector strength of the E-M ****presence of**** a travelling Photon. In ‘Reality’, Photons are now theorized as being ‘Gravitationally Propelled’ like a bubble in a pool and as a Transverse-Axially-Oscillating, Torsion-Pendulum which ‘projects’ a Twisting Electric field Line, above and below the Photon at right angles to the direction of motion of the Photon and surrounded by a closed-loop of one Oscillating Magnetic Field line, both at right angles to the direction of travel of the Photon. The Representation Below shows the instantaneous E-M trail produced by a Photon.**

**Energy of the Photon**

**The whirling, twisting Ether is where ‘Timeflex Kinetic Energy’ is found when E&M are zero.**

**Two Sine waves of Electric and Magnetic Energy WITH a Cosine of Timeflex Energy****.****©**

**Photons are SO MUCH MORE than E-M waves.**

**Presenting Over Fifty BREAKTHROUGH Ideas About The Composition Of The Photon****.****©**

**This List Shows Us Just How Much More There Is To The Photon.**

**‘©’ is used to mark every new idea about the Photon.**

**Photon’s are composed IN THE EXACT FORM of a ‘Torsion Pendulum’.(Not A Wave.)©****Photons are****individual****Electro-Magnetic elements, each with its own frequency.©****Each Photon IS An Individual Element Composing An Electro-Magnetic Wave Train.©****Each Photon has, orientation, polarization, Etheric Mass, Energy and Self-Propulsion.©****Photons And All ‘Mass’ Are limited to ‘The Asymptotic Speed Of Light’ by the Ether’.©****‘The Asymptotic Speed Of Light’ is inversely proportional to the Ether Density.©****The Ether of ’empty’ Space is compressible, de-compressible, twistable and warpable.©****The Ether is elastic like cubic rubber and stores energy in any distorted shape.©****Distortions of the Ether manifest as Electric, Magnetic, or Gravitational properties.©****Photons Twist And Torque flux-lines of the Ether which exhibit as Electro-Magnetism.©****The Photon pendulum mass is comprised of ‘Two Single Flux Lines Of The Ether.’©****The Photon Torsion Axis is a Mid-Twisting, open-ended vector ‘line of Electric flux’.©****The Photon perimeter is a single, oscillating, closed-loop, scalar ‘ of Magnetic flux’.©****The Photon Electric Vector Axis as seen from the top, twists right (POS) and then left (NEG); AND,****seen opposite****from the bottom, twisting left (NEG) and then right (POS).©****Photons, Like Solitons, Can Pass Through Each Other With No Direct Interaction.©****Photons pass through polarizer gratings if the magnetic ‘rim’ aligns with the slit.©****…………………………… GRAVITY AND “MASSLESS BLACK HOLES …………………………..****Gravitational Fields Cause Curving Photon Motion Further Compacting The Field.©****Photons traversing Ether filled with gravitational differences react by curving.©****Photons Locked In Binary Orbit around a ‘Massless Black Hole’ Produce Electrons.©****The ‘Massless Black Hole’ in Every Electron is 1E+7 more dense (m/v) than the Sun.©****Orbiting pairs of Photons about a central core perpetuate a ‘Massless Black Hole’.©****Photons, Gamma Rays, in trinary orbit produce fractionally charged (1/3,2/3) Quarks.©****……………………………………. PHOTON CHARACTERISTICS ……………………………………..****Anti-gravity results from rarification of the Ether****inside****the outer rim of the Photon.©****Photons****Are Propelled****by external ‘Gravitational pressure. (ie Bubbles rising in a pool.)©****Photon Frequency changes with local Speed of Light changes caused by Gravitation.©****Photons****red shift****while moving from higher to lower gravitation densities.©****Photons blue****shift****while moving from lower to higher gravitational densities.©****Photons are singly produced, autonomous, ‘Torsion Pendulums’; (Think Hail Stones?)©****Continued emission of Photon ‘Space-Time Trails’ create ‘Electro-Magnetic waves’.©****Photon Energy (hF) is carried as physical oscillations of E-M flux lines of the Ether.©****Each Photon element has Energy-Content (E=hF) as deduced by Dr. Max Planck.©****Photon Time-Flex Energy is contained in Flexations Of The Ether**.**©****When E&M are both zero, ALL the Photon Energy is stored in Time-Flex motion.©****………………………….. PHOTON CREATION AND EXTINCTION ………………………………****Photons radiate from an antenna with a diameter determined by the antenna length.©****Antenna Photon emissions FORM waves composed of nearly-identical Photons.©****Not all ‘Photons’ formed by Electron flow within an Antenna escape as Photons.©****Photons will eventually give up all of their Energy (F) due to Etheric Impedance.©****Photons Lose Frequency (red shift), not velocity, due to****Etheric Impedance.**©**When All The Photons Die, Mass and Matter will cease to exist in the universe.©**

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**MORE ABOUT THE PHOTON AS THE ENERGY OF MASS.**

**Historically, the composition of the classical Physics sub-atomic particles was never completed to the chagrin of the ‘Old Physics Masters’ including Drs. Maxwell, Planck, Einstein, Murray Gel-Mann and possibly, Sir Isaac Newton. When Quantum Physics took off as the mainstream development of Physics, Photons became mere energy transfer devices. The Photon was relegated to being a charge-less, non-magnetic, massless entity. **

**Photons were ****never recognized as being the providers of the Electric, Magnetic, AND Gravitational Field FORCES AND as being the building blocks of all matter****.** Conveniently, In classic ‘matter/antimatter’ collisions, Photons, were thought to ‘pop up out of nowhere’ as ‘new Energy carriers’, BUT, in fact, those *Observed* Photons are the very Photons which composed the colliding particles! It is THOSE COMPOSITIONAL PHOTONS **that are released by the collision****.(Gamma Rays).© Reality is merely an illusion created with photons.**

**So What about that Energy in Dr. Einstein’s famous equation (E=mc² in joules). Has anyone explained what it is? NO! It is still a ‘Bit Of A Mystery’. It does not fit the kinetic energy equation of Newton: E=½mv² NOR the Potential Energy imparted by gravity (F=ma) to mass but still ****the Energy**** IS expressed in joules. If we make a simple algebraic manipulation of The Good Doctors’ famous equation we DO see The Obvious Classification of the Energy. Multiplying the right side of his equation by 2*½ (which is = 1), we get a new equation showing us instantly: E=2*(½mc²)© which students of physics will see is 2 bundles of KINETIC ENERGY: 2*(E=½mc²) where v²=c². ‘Mystery’ solved.**

**SO, IF EACH OF THE TWO BUNDLES IS A VERY HIGH ENERGY PHOTON, a Gamma Ray, TWO of which have the ‘Mass-Equivalent’ Of The Energy required to provide the Mass of the Electron. (2*0.25=0.5 Million Electron Volts.). Remember: Energy of Oscillation is NOT Mass. Together, the Two Photons Contribute The Total Mass-equivalent Of The Electron With A ‘Massless Black Hole’ as ‘The Center of Gravity’ from ‘The Higgs Field’ in every particle.©**

**The Photon has been represented in diagrams and schematics as a multi-cycle ‘squiggle’ with an arrowhead ( ~~>) to allow progress in Quantum Physics in the same manner as Electronics used the characteristics of the Electron as a ‘black box with countable and predictable point charge’. The Photon AND the Electron have been put to use symbolically without ever knowing their composition. Now there is a New, Breakthrough ‘Theory of Everything’ using High-Energy Photons to make Electrons and all sub-atomic particles which has been published as a Kickstarter project and is now located at http://www.massquerade.com and viewable on youtube.com Both are free using the links found within this page: [massquerade.com].©**

**The basic characteristics essential for building charged particles (as shown above) Are possessed by the Photon. Photons escape an antenna when the motion of a single stack of Electrons in the antenna has reached the end.© and the diameter of the Magnetic, closed-loop scaler reaches full size and the Electric Vector of the Photon is in full twist. See “The Energy of the Photon” graphic above.** It is extremely doubtful that anything could have exploded and produced the simultaneous ‘Photonic orbitation’ required to produce mass.

**Sub-Atomic Particles are composed of High-Energy Photons; NOT waves. but theorized in ‘Mass’Querade’ to be “Transverse, Axially Oscillating, Torsion Pendulums, propelled like a bubble rising in a pool”. Please Note: Nothing about this Photon resembles the usual ‘Photonic Wave’. ****The world has treated the Magnetic Force of the Photon as a vector all these years****. We know Magnetic forces are found in nature as closed-loop SCALARS.**

**Waves of Photons are created and are NOT cyclically synchronized. In fact, EVERY Photon will be of a frequency that is ever so slightly different from any other Photon from an antenna. While Photons are perceived as travelling in waves, they have no interaction with other Photons in the wave; unlike the bumping H2O molecules of an ocean wave. There are no self-alignment, phase or frequency alignment mechanisms in a wave of Photons like one might find in an organized pack of dinosaurs in a Jurassic Park Movie which ‘know’ to run together. Also, unlike the dinosaurs, Photons can occupy the exact same space as other Photons without losing any of their characteristic motions, their original frequencies, polarizations, or their direction of travel.**

**Photons ‘perpetually’ twist back and forth on their vertical axis (The vertical line in the center of the graphic) producing Twists in the fabric of Time in Space (the Ether) that are projected along the center axis to be sensed by the rest of the Universe as an alternating negative/positive ‘charge’ depending on the direction of twisting rotation of the pendulum of the Photon. This ****on axis**** twisting ‘line of charge’ is what is known as a single ‘electric flux line”. Due to the Oscillation of the Electric axis, the Photon will appear to observers as having no DC charge and, as it projects an AC charge it is accompanied by a rotating line of Etheric magnetic flux that together provide the E-M characteristics of the Photon. The sinusoidal twisting Photon Electric flux shows us EXACTLY HOW the electric charge can vary in magnitude long with the quantity of Magnetic rotation.The strength of the twists of torsion of these ‘electric projections’ grow and shrink during each half-cycle of the Photon as it travels through space. These sinusoidally oscillating twists of flux lines are the basis of all Electric Fields. At the same time, rotating at the outer edge of the pendulum is a single line of magnetic flux. It should be noted that the axis and the edge are composed of the Ether itself.**

**Sub-Atomic Particles Acquire Electric Charge, Magnetism AND Mass from the Photon’s constituent characteristics as they are expressed in the Ether by the oscillating action of the compositional Photons of the particles.**

**Electric Charge Is Composed Of Twists In The Same Media where a twisting by rotation manifests the magnetic component. Gravitational Waves are Variations in The Temporal Compressions Of the SAME Ether. This is UNIFICATION.© It is shown that the Electric Field lines, Magnetic loops AND Gravity are all distortions of the same media, the Ether, to produce effects that are extendable and can affect the motions of other objects and travelling Photons in the ‘physical world’.**

****Amazingly, The Door May Be Open For Non-Massive, Non-Etheric, Non-Photonic, Mental Images Or Thoughts To Have NO Speed Limit Whatsoever!****© ******Which brings up a new idea**.

****A corollary to the Light Speed Limit of ****massive**** particles; something Dr. Einstein NEVER mentioned: Massive Particles do have a speed limit: ****MASSLESS particles or entities may NOT have a speed limit****! *** MASSLESS entities might include ‘thought’ but probably do NOT include ‘spooky’ entanglement action produced within the Ether although the speed of entanglement action has not been determined. Also, selective access to non-etheric information might always require mental effort. There might be a whole field of endeavor to create hyperspace communication if any massless entity or telepathic endeavor could be identified within the memory recall system found in our brains already. There is a huge and obvious mismatch between the Exabytes of visual memory and the probable gigabytes of possible brain storage meaning we may only store the addresses of our memories using the synapses of our brain*.

*For those allowed to exercise an open mind… The God of Creation could only be all knowing, saving HIM from having to roll dice, **if the speed of thought is unlimited thus allowing HIM to know everything instantly and simultaneously, without limits, and faster than any quantum effect**. Men are stuck with the time it takes, 15 MINUTES each way, just to talk to Mars with electromagnetic waves. Interestingly, *__testing may show that ‘thoughts’ happen ‘instantly’ and can be known at any distance__* from the location of the thought. (Bring in Dr. Russell Targ’s “third-eye vision people” after the first man steps on Mars… or before.) ‘Issa or Esa’ saw things **before** they happened and perceived the thoughts of his enemies. Just imagine how quickly our minds could work together to examine scientific data without limits or biases using the help of telepathy or clairvoyance. Man needs to open his mind and heart. Although, evil thoughts and cheating lies would be detected instantly. Human minds have not been trusted with foreknowledge.. Extra Terrestrials have been credited with having non-verbal communication skills which would have allowed them to cooperate instinctively. That coupled with peace instead of war might be why ‘they’ are light years ahead of us in the same 6000 years since they and us were actually created. There is a cost for our God-given freedom to do evil ***“as in the days of Noah”,**

**?**

*or good, all the days of our lives. Which will you choose***“Will it be smoking or non-smoking?”**

**THE ETHERIC PHOTON?**

**ALL THE ENERGY OF THE PHOTON IS IN FLEXATIONS OF THE ETHER.**

**©Clifford G. Arnell, February 2023. All Rights Reserved.**